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The Emergence of a Town

According to Ong Tae Hae, Batavia was a low city, probably compared to the cities in China such as Shang Hai, and the dwelling houses are dense (Ong 1849: 6). She was founded in 1619 on the ruins of the former principality of Jayakarta. Occupation and domination are the elements inherent in any colonial establishment’s foundation; however, in the case of Batavia, either the native population chose to follow their own rulers Jayawikarta Prince and fled to nearby Banten, or they were simply chased away (Blusse, 1986: 3).

Before the town was occupied by VOC and named Batavia, at this place

Kehancuran Batavia LamaJatinegara 1941

Beberapa penulis yang pernah mengunjungi dan tinggal di Batavia menuliskan kesan-kesan mereka, baik tentang kehancuran Batavia setelah Daendels menjadi gubernur jenderal, maupun catatan tentang pinggiran Batavia setelah tembok kota di rumtuhkan sampai dengan tulisan tentang pariwisata di kota lama Batavia.

Sebelum Daendels datang Batavia mengalami kerusakan ekologi. Tetapi kerusakan ini tidak dapat disalahkan pada disain kota atau pada gempa bumi. Blusse menulis sebagai berikut:

Masalah yang mendasari kematian Batavia - transformasi dari sebuah kota yang sehat ke dalam kuburan - tidak harus

Munculnya Sebuah Kota

Menurut Ong Tae Hae, Batavia adalah kota dataran rendah sebanding dengan kota-kota di Tiongkok seperti Shang Hai, dan perumahannya sangat padat (Ong 1849: 6). Kota ini dibangun tahun 1619 di atas puing Kota Jayakarta. Penjajahan dan dominasi adalah sifat yang selalu melekat pada fondasi pembangunan semua pemerintahan colonial; tetapi, untuk Batavia penjajahan itu menjadi sulit diterapkan karena setelah Jayakarta di kalahkan, semua penduduk aslinya ikut melarikan diri bersama pemimpinnya Pangeran Jaya Wikarta ke Banten, atau mereka menghilang begitu saja (Blusse, 1986: 3).

Sebelum dirampas

Kerusuhan 1740Chinese Messacre infront of city hall of Batavia old Jakarta

Orang Tionghoa di Asia Tenggara menguasai perdagangan telah ditunjukkan dengan jung-jung mereka yang mendarat di pantai Pulau Jawa. Disertasi Blusse memiliki presentasi lengkap dalam kasus Batavia dan pasangannya Amoy di Tiongkok Selatan. Junk-junk tersebut yang mendarat di pantai Jawa Tengah dan Jawa Timur mungkin tidak berbeda dengan junk-junk yang mendarat di Batavia. Akibat dari pembunuhan orang Tionghoa tahun 1740 di Batavia, orang Tionghoa melarikan diri dan mencari perlindungan pada permukiman-permukiman Tionghoa lain di Jawa Tengah dan Jawa Timur.

Dampaknya adalah, mereka membawa

Riot in 1740Chinese Messacre infront of city hall of Batavia old Jakarta

The Southeast Asian Chinese dominated trading had shown that Chinese junks landed on the coastal area of Java. Blusse’s dissertation has a complete presentation on the case of Batavia and her partner Amoy in south China. Those junk landed in the coastal area of Central and east Java would probably not much different to those landed in Batavia.

Due to the Chinese massacre in Batavia 1740, the Chinese escaped from the calamity to other Chinese settlement in central and East Java. As consequence they also brought political changes in the interior of the island.

D. How the History of Architecture WorksOld Bridge Florence

     From historical point of view, cities in the world can be divided into two grosstad and metropolis. Groesstad is a city which grew for along time such as Paris, Rome, and London, cities which has a very long history. While metropolis means instant cities, cities which was fragmented in a very short time, those cities are  in North America or Developing Countries. History of architecture concerning both, in Europe it is a sort of idea of reconstruction of the cities, while in developing countries it can be a potential idea for city planning in the future.

D.1. Groβstad and the history of

F. End of A Column.The Cathedral and the Baptistery of Florence

     History of architecture is a starting point to reconsider the city planning in the third world countries. The destruction and neglecting the old town should be stopped. The old ware house and empty colonial office can be an alternative of low cost housing by transferring the inside space. Also, social welfare need to be highlighted so the condition of the town is not deteriorated day by day with squatters.

     I believe that historical reading of developing urban and continued with urban analysis, should be applied to avoid the deteriorated metropolis and one way for a good future.

  

C. The Scope of Architecture History.

     If architecture is an art which is bound to matter, it is undeniably that architecture is an artifact, art of built environment. It is Marvin Trachtenberg who divided method in the history of architecture into five methods and clearly stated one by one.

C.1. Architect's biography as a method.

     First is the study of history of architecture which is based on the biography of it's architect. He noted that in a sense, the least problematic as well as the most popular form of architectural publication in recent years.

B. Hegelian's legacy.City of Dreams Florence

     The history of social, politic and economic happened since the human-being civilization. But history of art and history  of architecture started since Hegel found his idea that art can not be seen as a static system. Demetri Porphyrios said that the history of the history of architecture from Strzygowski, Burckhardt, Riegl, Wolfin, Frankl, Wittkower, Pevsner, or Gideon, to contemporary scholarship, has been the history of reinterpreting the concept of representation and idea, always remaining within the legacy of Hegelian idealism.(1)

Along the history of art and architecture, we can

DaendelsHerman Willem Daendels 1762-1818

 

Lebih dari setengah abad setelah peristiwa pemberontakan orang Tionghoa 1740, orang Batavia sudah lupa dengan pembunuhan itu. Pulau Jawa sudah tidak lagi diperintah oleh VOC yang bangkrut diakhir abad ke 17, tetapi langsung oleh pemerintah Belanda. Seorang Gubernur Jendral yang baru Daendels tiba di Batavia pada tahun1803.

Salah satu Tugas utama Daendels selain membuat Batavia, sehat karena pada waktu itu Batavia benar-benar menjadi sarang penyakit, adalah mengorganisasi pertahanan untuk menghadapi Inggris.

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